Strabismus (Eye Turns)

Strabismus is a general term that describes an eye turn. The eye turn can be inward (esotropia), outward (exotropia), downward (Hypotropia), or upward (hypertropia). While some eye turns are constant and obvious, others can be intermittent and subtle.

This condition is often present from birth but can develop over time as well. It often occurs as a result of a high uncorrected glasses prescription. Although one eye is turned, patients rarely see double vision. That is because they suppress, or turn off the vision from that eye to the brain. With only one eye functioning, those with strabismus lack depth perception.

Symptoms Checklist


Eye Strain or Headaches After Near Work


Clumsy, Bumps Into Things


Poor Reader


Poor Hand-Eye Coordination


Poor Depth Perception


Head Turn or Tilt


What is Esotropia?

Esotropia occurs when one eye fixates on a target, while the other eye points inward towards the nose. This can be very pronounced or subtle and may be constant or intermittent. It also may occur more frequently when looking up close versus far away or vice versa. Esotropia has a high correlation with uncorrected Hyperopia (far-sightedness), although some have no measurable prescription.

Treatment of Esotropia

Treating Esotropia almost always begins with the correct glasses prescription, which often includes a bifocal to aid in eye alignment. Patching for a few hours a day may be recommended at first, but Vision Therapy is the preferred method for treating Esotropia. Vision Therapy for Esotropia involves teaching the turned eye how to point in the same direction as the fixating eye. This is accomplished through activites that give the patient feedback about where their eye is pointing.


What is Exotropia?

Exotropia occurs when on eye fixates on a target while the other eye points outward, towards another point in space. This is usually fairly pronounced, although it can be subtle. Exotropia is more often intermittent, occuring when the patient becomes tired but may be constant. Exotropia is often correlated with high amounts of prescription in one eye but not the other, such as high Myopia (near-sightedness) or Astigmatism.

Treatment of Exotropia

Treating Exotroia involves first identifying and correcting any refractive error through glasses or contacts. Vision Therapy is then started with the goal of teach binocular vision and improving eye alignment, teaming, and depth perception. This is accomplished by using activities and procedures that give the patient feedback about where their eyes are pointing, teaching them to identify when their eye is turned, and introducing patients to three-dimensional vision by using the latest technology.

Surgical Options in Strabismus

Surgery is sometimes recommended as a treatment option for strabismus. While Surgery may be indicated in some cases, there are several considerations to make.

Surgery is widely considered to be a cosmetic solution only. It typically does not restore binocular vision, which is what gives us depth perception (stereopsis) and eyes that work in coordination when reading or tracking objects.

Treating Exotropia involves first identifying and correcting any refractive error through glasses or contacts. Vision Therapy is then Another consideration is the long term prognosis with strabismus surgery. Because strabismus surgery doesn’t address the underlying reason that the eye turned originally, the eye often turns again after surgery, requiring second and third surgeries to address these new eye turns. A recent study published in the American Journal of Ophthalmology (link HERE) found a failure rate of 77% when treating infantile esotropia with surgery.

Clinical Research

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